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Directory Operation Commands

mkdir Command Examples

mkdir is one of the essential Linux commands that every Linux user should know. You can create new directories using mkdir.

One of the essential Linux commands is mkdir. The mkdir allows you to make new directories (folders in common term) in Linux.

In this beginner series, you’ll learn to use the mkdir command.

mkdir command examples

The mkdir command is one of the rare few Linux commands that doesn’t have tons of options. And that makes it really simple to use.

Here’s the syntax:

mkdir [option] directory_name_or_path

Let’s see how to use it.

Create new directories

To make a new directory, use mkdir command without any option:

mkdir new_dir

This will create a new directory named new_dir in the present directory. You can check it using the ls command.

abhishek@linuxhandbook:~/tuts$ ls
abhishek@linuxhandbook:~/tuts$ mkdir new_dir
abhishek@linuxhandbook:~/tuts$ ls -l
total 4
drwxrwxr-x 2 abhishek abhishek 4096 May 14 16:15 new_dir

You may also specify the path to where you want to create the new directory.

abhishek@linuxhandbook:~/tuts$ ls
abhishek@linuxhandbook:~/tuts$ mkdir new_dir/another_new_dir
abhishek@linuxhandbook:~/tuts$ tree
└── new_dir
    └── another_new_dir

2 directories, 0 files

Create multiple directories

You may also create several new directories with a single command:

mkdir new_dir_1 new_dir_2 new_dir_3

All the new directories are created at the same level. You may also create nested directories which is described in the next section.

Create nested directories

You can use the option -p to create a nested directory structure. If the parent directory doesn’t exist, it will create it for you.

This is particularly helpful when you want to create a directory structure or if you want to make sure that the directory path exists.

mkdir -p dir1/dir2/dir3/dir4

This is what the above command created:

abhishek@linuxhandbook:~/tuts$ mkdir -p dir1/dir2/dir3/dir4
abhishek@linuxhandbook:~/tuts$ tree 
├── dir1
│   └── dir2
│       └── dir3
│           └── dir4
└── new_dir
    └── another_new_dir

6 directories, 0 files

You may also use the -p option with a single directory. It won’t create a new directory that already exists, but it won’t throw any errors as well:

abhishek@linuxhandbook:~/linuxhandbook$ mkdir new_dir
mkdir: cannot create directory ‘new_dir’: File exists
abhishek@linuxhandbook:~/linuxhandbook$ mkdir -p new_dir
abhishek@linuxhandbook:~/linuxhandbook$ ls -l
total 8
drwxrwxr-x 3 abhishek abhishek 4096 May 14 16:39 dir1
drwxrwxr-x 3 abhishek abhishek 4096 May 14 16:16 new_dir

Create directory with specific permissions

By default, your shell’s umask controls the permission on the newly created directories. If you want different file permissions on the directory, instead of creating the directory first and then changing the permission with the chmod command, you can use the -m option.

Suppose you want permission 766 on the directory you are going to create. You can use:

mkdir -m 766 new_directory

That’s pretty much what you need to know about the mkdir command. Now that you know how to create directories, maybe you would want to learn about the rmdir command and deleting directories in Linux command line.

Abhishek Prakash