So, you have a long string and you want to check of this string contains a substring in your bash script.
There are more than one way to check for substrings in bash shell. I'll show some simple examples first, followed by a cool bash script that uses this concept in a real-world scenario.
Checking for substring in bash using if else statement
If you are familiar with the conditional statements in bash, you can use it to check if a string contains the substring in the following manner:
if [[ $fullstring == *"$substr"* ]];
Simple example for checking substring
The double brackets are necessary here. I consider this to be the native way because it does not use any other tool. Let me explain the above snippet with proper example.
Initialize a variable with a long string:
[email protected]:~$ fullstring="This is a string with a stretch"
Now, store the word “stretch” inside a variable called
[email protected]:~$ substr="stretch"
Let's make the substring comparison:
[email protected]:~$ if [[ $fullstring == *"$substr"* ]]; then
Here, * means zero or more characters. I hope you are familiar with the concept of quotes in bash scripting. The $substr inside the quotes replaces it with its value.
Basically, you are checking if the full string matches xxxxsubstrxxxx type of pattern.
You could also use the substring directly instead of using it through a variable like this:
[email protected]:~$ if [[ $fullstring == *"stretch"* ]]; then
You get the gist. Let me complete this script with else statement that shows an alternate message if the substring is not found:
#!/bin/bash fullstring="This is a string with a stretch" substr="stretch" if [[ $fullstring == *"$substr"* ]]; then echo "Found $substr!" else echo "$substr not found!" fi
You can easily see that if you run the above shell script, it will find the substring.
[email protected]:~$ bash substr.sh Found stretch!
A better real world example for finding substring in bash
Substrings can be very helpful in scripts to “interact” with users. Use the read command to let your bash script accept user input.
echo "Hey there..what is your name?" read Name echo "Hello "$name"! The Matrix Resurrections trailer is here! Is your pill Red or Blue?" read Pill if [[ $Pill == *"Red"* || $Pill == *"red"* ]]; then echo "Welcome..to the real world "$Name"!" else echo "Wake Up "$Name"!" fi
Give it executable permission and execute the script:
[email protected]:~$ chmod +x makeyourchoice.sh [email protected]:~$ ./makeyourchoice.sh
Output for the above script:
Hey there..what is your name? avimanyu Hello avimanyu! The Matrix Resurrections trailer is here! Is your pill Red or Blue? I have Red pill Welcome..to the real world avimanyu!
Here, I made the if condition slightly better by taking care of two probable chances of case sensitivity. Only
Red is the substring here. But
red is a possible input too. So, I added another condition.
|| indicates “or”. If you enter
Red, it is a substring. But even though
red is not one, I had to add it.
Finding substring in bash using grep command
Here's another way for finding substring in a string in bash. Use the grep command in this manner:
if grep -q "$substr" <<< "$fullstring"; then echo "Found"; fi
q options means grep will be in quiet mode, not showing any output. Please mind that there are 3 <, not just 2.
I hope this quick tutorial helped you in looking for a specific substring within a string. If you have questions or suggestions, feel free to leave a comment below. Btw..which pill did you choose? Did you make your choice?